Chapter 5 - Fuselage Sides
In chapter 5, the sides of the fuselage are constructed. Simple jigs are constructed to permit the curved shape to be easily formed, and to form wooden longerons into the proper curvature. Then the foam and inside layups are done.

Click any image to see a larger version.
The Jigs
The jigs for the fuselage sides consist of 1" thick pine boards cut to shape that the upper longerons are formed against. These are then set upright and a thin wood panel (masonite in the plans) set atop a pair of the pine jigs to provide the curvature of the fuselage side itself. Simple enough.
The pine boards should be wide enough to permit the curvature required to be cut into it. The supplier I used didn't have any wide enough, only some almost wide enough. So I bought those. I would need to glue off-cuts from the inside part of the curve onto the ends to provide the width for the complete curvature to the ends.

As my fuselage shape is a little different to plans, the plans dimensions could not be used. Having my planned fuselage drawn in CAD, it was simple enough to generate the dimensions needed, however. I printed the required dimensions and drew them onto the pine boards. I marked lines at 5cm intervals along the length of the boards, then marked up each line how deep the cut was needed. Then I just joined the intersections to create a gently stepped curve along the length.
I ignored the ends initially, as I hadn't added the extra width yet. I cut the part of the curve that fit in the existing width of the boards, then used parts of those off-cuts to widen the ends, then marked and cut those as well.
The plans have the jigs make in 3 segments for each of the 4 parts of this jig. I made mine in continuous lengths. Part of the reason for this is the plans specify using a spacer to increase the curvature slightly when forming the longerons, as bing on the inside of the foam sides, the curve is slightly tighter. I calculated the extra curvature required using the CAD drawings, and found it to be <2mm along the entire length! Thus I elected not to make the jigs in segments and increase the curvature. I'm pretty confident I can bend the longerons 2mm along their length when fitting.

Once the four boards were cut (two for top, two for bottom of the sides), I clamped the matching pairs together and sanded them to a near perfect match. Any inconsistency here probably isn't significant in the end, but I am being particular to create a nice symmetrical fuselage!


The Longerons, Doublers, and Stiffeners.
The plans call for spruce to be used to create the wooden longerons and stiffeners, as well as a few other small parts. Spruce is not generally available in New Zealand, but I found an aircraft supply company that imported it to order. The quantity needed for this aircraft is relatively small, especially compared to aircraft with entirely wooden airframes! I got a quote, that included savings in shipping resulting from combining with a larger order from a wooden aircraft builder. I was shocked at the price quoted! Surely there was a better way!
Builders in non-US countries have used some alternative wood over the years in building these aircraft. Hoop pine is one example. I couldn't find a source of that, either. So I found the characteristics or spruce and compared with other wood that was available in NZ.  What I found was gaboon, a wood from west Africa that has similar strength and density to spruce. The catch is, it's not sold here in convenient strips and sizes for aircraft building, but it is readily available as an exotic plywood. I ordered a sheet, 6mm (1/4") thick, 5-ply.  The plans call for a thickness of 18mm (3/4"), so I can simply laminate 3 layers together to obtain the desired thickness. In fact, in order to create the curvature for the upper longerons, the plans call for 3 layers of 1/4" spruce to be laminated into the curve. I am doing the same thing, except each layer is already 5 plies! So these wooden parts are ending up as 15-ply pieces, and seem plenty tough and light.

Another catch is that the sheet of ply is shorter that the length of the longerons. Is is strong enough and permissible to join pieces to create the length required?

I searched the e-mail list archives for information. I found what I needed. Nat Puffer had discussed with a builder what to do after they inadvertently snapped a longeron. He advised that the longerons are not primary structure, but rather help form the desired shape of the fuselage and provide a hard point for attachments, such as canopy hinges. He advised that a simple scarf joint would be fine for the repair.
I found a builder's page who had done just such a repair. He had also tested a joined piece (of spruce) and a continuous piece of the same dimensions and found that the continuous piece failed before the repair one. So plenty of strength here in either case.
Since I am laminating 3 layers together in forming the longerons anyway, I can alternate the ends so that joins are not adjacent to each other, forming lap joints. I also cut the ends at 45deg where they join together. Not great for a scarf joint, but should be more than adequate with the effective lap joint as well.

I generated LOTS of sawdust cutting strips off the plywood sheet. Most of the strips are 1" wide. I used my circular saw (with a 40-tooth blade) attached to a home-made guide rail to ensure straight consistent cuts as the desired width.

For pieces that were to join end-to-end (to create the length required for the longerons), I then cut 45deg angles on the ends, though the 6mm thickness. In hindsight, cutting 45s along the length would have made a wider join that would have been easier to handle. Oh well, it's good enough.

I mixed up a batch of epoxy mixed with colloidal silica to thicken it to a thin paste. Pure epoxy at 30c would have been very thin indeed (helps it to wet-out well!) and would not have readily bridged any small gaps or voids in the joins.
I butted the extensions to the longerons together with epoxy applied to both sides, then carefully placed a thick MDF panel on top, followed by some weight to ensure nothing moved and that it was kept flat.
I then took all the smaller pieces for doublers, stiffeners, etc. and applied a thin layer to both sides that were to be laminated, then pressed them together and adjusted each layer to be properly in-line. Then another piece of MDF was laid on top of this collection of pieces, and more weights on top, to ensure all layers were kept pressed firmly together until cured.

After an overnight cure, all appeared well. the longeron extensions stay together fine (though they'll be a lot stronger when the layers are laminated together), and the smaller pieces are tough and light with no sign of any weakness between layers (nor should there be). The laminated layers had shifted horizontally slightly in a few cases, but the edges cleaned up flat with a little bit of sanding.

Laminating the longerons was straightforward enough. I painted epoxy (thickened to a runny paste with colloidal silica) on both sides to be bonded, then pressed the two sides together. 3 layers for each longeron. Once both longerons were laminated together, they were clamped to the jigs to cure. They spent the night in the heat tent (which I might simply refer to as the 'autoclave' from now on, despite the fact that is quite an exaggeration). 
The result is quite good. There is a slight offset vertically between layers, which a little sanding mostly smoothed out (without removing excessive material, of course). The curve is fine, though it does spring back a little. There is enough flex that there is zero concern about bonding it at the correct curvature to the sides.


The 5' stiffner was constructed in much the same way, curing against the jig in the appropriate location to form the desired curvature without the need for saw cuts etc.
The doublers (fore and aft) are on parts of the longeron that are almost straight anyway (aft) or are short enough for the curvature to be insignificant (fore). 
I attached the stiffener and doublers all at once, screwing the stiffner and forward doubler onto the longeron (haveing pre-drilled holes of course), and clamping the aft doublers to the sides. Again, no problem. I added a bit of epoxy paste (colloidal silica mix) to smooth the transition where the fore doubler and stiffeners meet the longeron. Just a tiny bit. I also filled the screw holes later with epoxy paste. Probably left small voids inside at the deepest penetration of the screws, but I don't foresee this being any problem.

Al also rounded off the inside corner (where the occupants may bump against it in flight, and where glass will soon have to conform to). I used my (new) router for this, with a 6mm (1/4") rounding bit. Worked very well, except where the stiffeners and doublers join. I actually made a bit of a mess of the forward portion of one of the fore doublers when the router tipped a bit off the end. Most or all of that will be trimmed off later, anyway. A few other spots that were a bit rough got a bit of epoxy paste to make the curvature consistent, as did the inside corner where the tapered part of the aft doubler meets the longeron that would otherwise be a square corner that would become an air void under glass later.


The lower longerons are to be triangular section, so I formed them in exactly the same way as the upper longerons (but on the bottom side jigs) and will cut them in half along their length with the bandsaw to create the triangular section. That should be 'fun'! This way they are already curved appropriately in one axis, so I should only need a few saw-cuts in one axis to form the vertical curve.
I had almost no vertical misalignment this time, being more careful than before (should have formed the lower longerons first? ;-) ). However, I had a few small gaps between layers in a few places, a couple several centimeters long. After the initial cure, I filled these with a runny epoxy paste. You'll never know, they'll just be a gram or three heavier.

I spent a couple of hours sanding imperfections, rounding spots the router could not reach, etc. I'd rather sand off imperfections where practical, rather than fill, as it's lighter. Watch the grams, and the kilograms will take care of themselves.

Blood, sweat, and tears - Check!

I completed the lower longerons more easily than I expected. Running the square section through the bandsaw on a 45deg cut output the triangular, curved section just as I had hoped, with minimal waviness. Great! I was pleasantly surprised and how well they turned out. I can even use the aft end of the off-cut section as the doubler.

With these complete, it was time to change the longeron jigs into full side jigs. For this, I have used thin MDF sheets that I acquired for free while pricing the plans specified masonite. It isn't quite as stiff (I added a couple of stiffeners in critical places to compensate), but it was free! They are used as cover sheets for the more valuable sheets that are sold, and apparently, have no value once the products are removed from their packaging. 
I cut the MDF sheets to the specified shape (adding my 6" extension in the middle), and clamped the two together for final sanding to shape to ensure the two sides were perfect matches.
Using the now perfectly shaped MDF sheets as guides, I cut the foam for the sides. The sheets of foam I obtained are larger than those obtained from Aircraft Spruce, so I was able to cut the sides as single pieces.

I joined the curved jigs at the ends with off-cuts from the original boards, and screwed the MDF sheets down on top after counter-sinking the holes.
The plans call for Last-a-Foam to form the raised edges of the fuselage sides; I don't have this, so I used PVC for this as well. The Last-a-Foam probably cuts and sands into angled pieces easier than PVC. I say this because the PVC is tricky to shape in this way. 
The first pieces were not very satisfactory. I had cut them with a hacksaw and sanded a bit, but they were very wavy and inconsistent. I decided to try a different method to improve the quality (I have -hopefully- enough foam for this, as I was only able to buy full sheets, so have some excess).

I took a reciprocating saw with a fine blade and tried cutting with that. It started well, then the blade caught in the foam, causing the tool itself to reciprocate instead, and as it did so, it hammered one of my fingertips between my workbench and the base of the tool. It probably happened for less than a second, but I don't know how many times my finger got hammered in that time. I do know that it hurt quickly, and a LOT, and I couldn't immediately see what damage was done due to the amount of blood. I was slightly relieved to discover with closer examination that my fingertip was in fact, still there. After attempting for a minute to wash off the blood (ineffective as it was still bleeding quite a bit, from the edge of the fingernail and the side of the finger itself on the opposite side) my wife suggested I lay down, as I was becoming faint. I did, for a couple of hours, by which time I was feeling better, though still sore. I was able to move it a bit, so was confident nothing was broken. It was sore and sensitive for some time, but returned to feeling almost completely normal after a couple of months.

I got almost nothing done on the project for a couple of months, on account of moving house, having to do some work on our car and selling it (and delivering it to the new owners 7hrs away, and flying commercial home), setting up the new workshop, and being very busy with work - that thing you have to do to pay for food and epoxy.

Back to the important business

Once my workshop was back in order, I had to make some minor repairs to my heat tent, as a leg had been broken during the move (it is made of chipboard strips after all!) and there was some other more minor damage. I reinforced the weak areas a bit too, so it shouldn't be an issue doing forward. I know now that I've said that, that a piece is going to snap at a very inopportune time...
I also took the opportunity to ensure my workbench was properly leveled when I set it up in the new workshop. I found a pack of shims at a hardware store in various thicknesses, so I added them as needed at the legs to get it as level as possible.

The lighting in the new workshop isn't anything like as good as the previous one, so I added some LED strips to fill in some darker areas; there should be adequate light to see layups clearly now, as well as on other bench areas.
Time to bring back the foam! I took the side foam and placed it flat on the work table. I have an extra step here. I routed a groove for the rudder cable conduit to be embedded in the foam. I marked the location where the rudder cable conduit is supposed to go (usually on the outside of the layup, under the armrests) and routed a groove the same depth as the nylaflow tubing is thick. The groove runs from just ahead of the instrument panel, along the sides, then ends inside the electrical channel, so that the cable will exit the firewall in the plans location.
You can see the grooves after I initially routed them in the image to the left. Not perfectly straight, so I used a piece of sandpaper and a mixing stick to smooth the ridges, allowing the tubing to run straight through.
This isn't a wholly original idea.
JD of Infinity Aerospace has suggested this, though his method is, I believe, to create a space for the tubing after the inside layups by inserting something in from the end under the glass. From what I understand that probably would work well, on a straight-sided Long-Ez. For the curved-sided cozy, not so much. So I am doing it this way. It will be fiddly getting the glass down and the tubing up through it during the layup, but since I'm hard-shelling and can position all the glass dry, it should be manageable. Read on to find out.

I attached the foam to the jigs using drywall screws from beneath, along the edges. No bondo or anything to tear out chunks of foam when removing from the jigs, and the small holes that are created are mostly in areas that get removed during contouring of the outside later anyway.

I used the router to create the control stick depressions as well and sanded the edges smooth and rounded. Easy enough. Much of this area will probably be removed as an opening into the extended strakes, but I figured there was little downside in doing it anyway, just in case the strake opening isn't enough, or something I haven't predicted is encountered.

Then I began microing the foam contours onto the sides. For the large pieces around the electrical channel and spar, I made a mistake, cutting the foam short on the front, not allowing for the taper at the top. So I had to cut triangles and micro them in place to complete this shape. Ah well, a few grams gained perhaps - but it's part of the beauty of this sort of construction than an error like this is so easily remedied.

I held all the pieces in place with drywall screws while the micro cured. This also has the advantage that the thrust from the screw when driven in pulls the pieces tightly together, which is especially useful where the pieces are flat and need to be installed onto a curved surface.


I cut nylaflow tubing for the rudder cable conduits slightly long on each end - easy enough to trim the excess later. I laid a bead of micro in the grooves before bedding in the tubing itself. Naturally, the tubing didn't want to lay in nicely, it had been shipped and stored coiled up. So I placed a strip of plastic over it then placed pieces of wood to hold it in place until the micro cured. I placed extra weights on to be sure it didn't move at all.
I erected the heat tent to ensure a good cure of the micro overnight. I didn't want the nylaflow to shift or otherwise get out of place if the micro wasn't sufficiently cured when the weights were removed. It was also the first use of the heat tent since the repairs and in the new workshop. No issues, other than taping a patch on a small tear in the plastic.
I had re-cut the pieces to form the contour after getting setup in the new workshop. Being extra careful to not crush another finger, I had rough cut the pieces with the reciprocating saw (but a different, coarser blade), then sanded them down to the desired angle and dimensions on the bench sander. To facilitate this, I divided the pieces into segments less than a meter long. It worked, but it meant that once the pieces were microed in place, there were slight discontinuities where some of the pieces met. I sanded them even with sanding blocks and loose sandpaper. To ensure I didn't gouge or otherwise damage the foam that was good (like the main piece they were microed to!) I applied duct tape (and then masking and plastic tape when that ran out) over the areas to be preserved from the sandpaper. That worked well. I did the same to protect the foam around the now buried rudder cable conduits when I sanded the micro flush there.


Following this, I began to hard-shell the foam (fill the exposed open 'bubbles with micro and leave to cure hard). I did this in two sessions using nice, dry micro to minimize weight. That's a lot of area to cover, and it took several hours to fill to my satisfaction. 
In fact, you can roughly determine the amount of time I have spent working on actual aircraft parts (not the workshop setup or heat tent repairs) by taking the amount of time it takes to listen to the audiobook
"Ready Player One" by Ernest Cline , plus about 2 hours. I believe I am more productive with another part of my brain engaged listening to something, well, engaging like that. Another plus, was that book really draws you in and as a lot of intense periods, so I kept labouring away when I might otherwise have stopped for a break - can't stop now, the book is too interesting!! I highly recommend reading it some time. Now I need to find something else to listen to. Oh, there's a sequel being written! And a movie adaption by Spielberg! Excellent!

Glassing the inside OR
How to ruin a lot of work and throw away $$$

I really need to start putting dates on these updates, for reference, and to make a bit more sense.bcccdaff
May 25, 2017.
Looking back, I think it's been over 9 months since my last proper layup. That's probably significant. This is also the most 3D piece since before I started actual aircraft parts.

And I screwed it up.


I cut the cloth on my cutting table to adequate length (in most instances!) to lay across the parts. I was a bit short for one, so use it for a shorter corner piece (a bit wasteful with so much to trim off). It would have been better to unroll it directly onto the parts and trim, minimizing wastage and saving time. As I was working alone, and my cloth cabinet is too heavy and massive to move around, I wasn't able to do that here.

I laid both layers of UNI on before beginning to wet it out, from front to back. That seems to go OK, LOTS of epoxy required! Several hours worth of glass wetting, using some heat to help move the epoxy out of rich areas to dry areas.
Once the glass was done I applied peel ply over the entire surface, in lengths across the pieces (rather than length-wise, as the peel ply isn't wide enough to do that in one piece anyway). A bit more epoxy and heat from my 'heat gun' to draw up excess from below and the peel ply was done too. More noticeable than previous flatter pieces, was that the peel ply does not conform anything like the glass does. It's also stiffer. These factors would contribute to my bad day.

With all that done, things looked good, so I set up the heat tent and left it to cure overnight.


The next morning I went out to the workshop, excited to take down the heat tent and remove the peel ply. The excitement evaporated pretty quickly.
I was soon obvious that things were not all as they should be. Lots of areas had 'bubbled up' leaving large voids in areas that should have remained flat. I had large bridges and voids in the stick depressions as well. Even where the spacers met the sides voids had appeared. 
These sides were junk. I'm not going to fly junk. I quickly dismissed the idea of filling the voids and repairing where necessary. While possible, and potentially faster, there was so many, it would be ugly and heavy.

I elected instead to attempt to peel away the glass and re-use the foam, and re-do the layup.


If you've read my Chapter 4, you'll know I've done a similar procedure before, on higher density foams. Would it work on this, much lighter foam?
That glass did not want to come off (a good thing!). With careful peeling, I was able to remove all the glass, though not without inflicting some serious damage to the foam. The aft area that is built-up for the spar and gear had quite a lot of the surface of the foam tear away, with similar damage over a number of other areas, especially at the front of the right side. The front of the left side broke up completely, and I never did get some of the foam off, it instead broke away with the glass. You can see from the photos some of the chunks of foam that broke away, despite my best efforts to leave it intact, or at least in large pieces that might be microed back together.

The area that had broken up at the front of the left side (right in the photo) was too badly damage to piece back together, not least because some of the foam was still on the removed glass and would not come off except in tiny pieces. So instead I cut a straight line just inside the broken edge to create an edge that I could butt new foam against. Then I re-built all the foam in this area and microed it in place. I placed some plastic sheet underneath to avoid microing the foam to the forms permanently.
Areas that had bubbles under the glass left ridges of epoxy behind on the foam in areas where the foam didn't peel off. The toughened epoxy I am using does not sand away easily (nice tough structure, though!), so I deployed the router to cut flush, which took down much of these areas. I used the router in the stick depressions as well, as the glass bridges had left significant epoxy ridges here. I ended up routing the edge back into the taper, and subsequently repaired the taper with micro. The pure cured epoxy is just so tough I'm as likely to damage surrounding areas as I am to sand away the epoxy!


The majority of the areas that had torn the surface of the foam off were not deep flaws, just the surface of the foam that had been in contact with the micro hard-shell was gone. I filled these areas with dry micro. The corners of the built-up foam at the electrical channels were probably the biggest flaw (other the front of the left side!), but I built them back up with dry micro and sanded to shape after cure. 
Some areas, such as around the area that will become the spar cutout I made several passes of micro -cure -sand to get it back to level.

About the micro. Recall from above how difficult to sand my toughened epoxy is? The micro created with this epoxy is quite tough to sand as well - and maybe that will be useful in some way at some point. But for general micro-fill, this is not a desirable characteristic. Of course, it is much easier to sand than micro-blend (with fumed silica - see prior chapters for that oaf story). But, I suspected, prior to beginning this repair, that a non-toughened epoxy would be good to use at this point! 
I contacted my epoxy supplier asking their advice. In their words 'ADR-246TG is not good for fairing!'. Indeed. Maybe I should link this site to them so they can have a laugh at my expense. They suggested West would be best for filling and sanding (matches with what other canard builders have suggested), but that ADR-246 (non-TG) would be ok too. I purchased 20kg of ADR-246 and some fast hardener, as the mix ratio is the same, I am familiar with its properties, and it is still good enough for structure too, if I run out of the -TG.
My existing hardener is much slower - actually, it is the 3rd fastest hardener available for this epoxy, and there are 8 different hardeners available. Pot life at 20c is 20min for my 'fast' (ADH25) and 1hr 35min for my 'slow' (ADH28). The slowest hardener available has a pot life of 24hrs at 20c!
Sure enough, the micro made with ADR-246 is MUCH easier to sand! And with the fast hardener, it cures much quicker, especially given the cold temperatures I'm working in presently, mid-winter. It hasn't actually snowed yet, it doesn't always here on the coast...

I took about 2 weeks to come back to actually performing the repairs. This was for two reasons.
First, I was really downcast after such a big failure. It sucks to lose so many hours of work and the materials aren't cheap to be throwing them in the bin, either.
Second, I took time to research and order the different epoxy to use. And it took a week rather than a couple of days to arrive due to the address being typoed; the courier eventually guessed it right. 

Glassing the insides, round two.

Filling and sanding to the correct contour is supposed to be a FINISHING activity! Ah well, it is less work and expense than building the foam from new. It'll add a bit of weight too, I'll have to accept that. Ugh. But the foam was fixed, and back to where I was a few weeks ago.

Also visible in the image to the right is my new GHD - Glass Handling Dispenser. This allows me to have the glass positioned right next to the parts, making it easier to roll out onto the glass and trim to just the right size, saving time and reducing waste. The roll of glass is placed on the uprights, and rolls off fairly easily. I have planned an upgrade to make it come off even easier (now done - added pairs of fixed castors at the top of the uprights. The steel pole the glass roll is on sits on the castors, which roll easily allowing the glass roll to roll very easily too. Not my idea, FWIW). The section that is visible here can be rotated down against the lower section, allowing me to slide the GHD under a workbench when not in use. The whole unit is on lockable castors, and the base is a rectangle of MDF that I can store things on - two of my 20ltr containers usually.

Using the GHD, laying out and cutting the glass was a lot quicker and easier with less waste, as hoped. I was extra careful with the wet-out, and applied peel ply only in selected areas (behind F22 for example). The non-conformal nature of the peel-ply (compared with the glass) has been the source of issues before, so I'm being more careful with it, particularly in areas with complex curvature.
The result was a good layup, with few voids, mostly bridges and small ones at that. I injected epoxy into some of these, and discovered that my lovely low-viscosity epoxy would flow back OUT of the holes if the orientation allowed it! I subsequently injected epoxy mixed with a little micro to reduce its flow (and reduce weight by some fraction of a gram). I'll only add micro where there is foam underneath, of course. If I ever find a void where there is intended to be a glass to glass or flox bond, I'll use a little colloidal silica instead to ensure strength.

Next up is floxing on the upper longerons. Ideally this is done before the glass beneath it is cured. I waited until the next week, but I had peel-plied the area, and sanded beforehand. My epoxy isn't fully-cured until the post-cure, which may provide some primary bond here.

I smeared flox onto the underside of the longerons, set them in place, then clamped and weighted them down. One thing I hadn't fully comprehended while test-fitting the longerons is that there is quite a gap under the longerons for the flox to fill at the aft end. The reason for this is that at the aft end, the lower side is tapered more than the top, so the side isn't level and flat here. With the longerons clamped to the spacers, they ARE level, so there is a gap here. I didn't have enough flox on this area to fill this gap. As the gap widens to the top, it was simple enough to fill this area with very wet flox once the sides were complete and sitting upright. It flowed slowly into the gap, and I used a razor blade to pop bubbles and force the flox into the gap. Leave a little time, and add a bit more to fill to the top. There were a couple of other small gaps where the longeron hadn't conformed perfectly to the side that I filled the same way.
Why hadn't the longeron conformed perfectly? Well, I'm at fault here. I attached the longeron slightly too far forward! As a result, the longeron isn't hanging off the aft end as much as it should - the doubler ends in-line with the end of the foam! The doubler that the canard alignment pins penetrate will also be a little shorter once that section is trimmed. These should not be a big problem. I haven't made the permanent lower firewall yet, so I'll cut the longeron hole to accommodate the section that is long enough, and flox the end of the doubler where it meets the firewall for a bit of extra strength there. Ultimately the strength is in the glass, not wood connections. The firewall penetration is primarily for alignment when assembling the fuselage in the next chapter, as far as I can tell.
With the longerons on, it was time to add the 4 plies of UNI along their length. The overlap into the glass below, as shown in the plans, runs down the angled section and ends where it meets the flat inside. But due to the varying shape of the longeron along its length, the width of the glass overlap, before trimming, will vary along the length, assuming a straight cut of glass. I decided to let the extra width remain, leaving the continuous fibres of UNI from end to end. Probably just extra weight...
I applied peel-ply, but wet it out a bit too far onto the flat areas. I figured I'd sand off the little extra epoxy later. Oh how foolish I was! The toughened, pure epoxy DOES NOT SAND easily. I worked it over quite a bit, which smoothed it out a bit... Note to self, be careful about any extra of the TG epoxy, it is VERY HARD to remove!

Attaching the lower longerons was fairly easy, using a method I found on Charles' Cozy website. I cut wooden blocks with a triangle-shaped cutout that fit over the lower longerons, making it very easy to clamp them in place. I bought more clamps too - you cannot have too many clamps in your workshop! I did one side at a time, allowing me to clamp it down in 10 places along the length. I even had two clamps to spare!
The plans call for you to cut slots to enable the lower longerons to conform to the curvature. Because I have formed them in the jigs, they already conformed on one axis, so I only needed 3 cuts in each to permit them to bend sufficiently in what will be the vertical axis.

Adding the doubler at the aft end was simple enough. If I'd thought of it at the time I might have been able to keep the square section when cutting the lower longerons into a triangle. Oh well. The plans don't mention it and I couldn't find any reason why not, so I cut the forward end of the doubler on a 45 and sanded a smooth curve on the top of it. It should reduce the amount of flox or micro required to glass over it later? Floxed it on, applied many clamps, and left it to cure.

Next was adding on LWX and LWY. I carefully measured, marked, and cut the angles to get them just right, and was very close, which was pleasing. I used drywall screws through holes drilled in the wood to ensure I got them in exactly the right place, then floxed them on and weighted them down to cure. I subsequently filled the holes from the screws with micro. I also microed a triangle of foam into the small space left between LWX and LWY ahead of where the spar mounts. I couldn't find anything in the plans about this either, but the foam will support the glass to go over this area and leave the spar gap the right shape all the way around.